SBTS Faculty

"Your Gear Can Wait." Wisdom from an Ordination Council

Last week I sat on an ordination council for a worship student who has faithfully served his rural Baptist church in Indiana while attending Southern Seminary. His church is one of many around the seminary that views itself as a “sending” church. They take young greenhorn worship musicians and shape them into more mature spiritual shepherds. Nothing substitutes for the opportunities students have when they apply what they’ve learned in the classroom to real-time, real-life church work.

Prior to the interview, the young worship leader submitted written answers to 50 questions ranging from specific theological perspectives to philosophy of ministry and worship service methodology. The following questions were asked during the in-person council:

*Explain justification by faith.

*Explain your view of sanctification. What are the various means God uses to sanctify the believer?

*Can a person have Christ as his Savior without submitting to Him as Lord? Explain.

*What is your position on inerrancy?

*How does the Bible relate the sovereignty of God to salvation?

*What does the Bible teach about the extent of man’s depravity?

*What does Christ’s atonement accomplish?

*What is the proper use of the Old Testament Law?

*Do you believe that Jesus Christ was born of a virgin? What is the significance of your belief?

*What is your interpretation of the biblical teaching on Hell?

*Do you believe that the events described in Genesis 1-11 are factual or symbolic?

*What is the church?

By the end of our meeting the ordination council had covered these questions and more—from congregational worship languages and cultures to dealing with cantankerous church members. I could not have been more proud of our Department of Biblical Worship student who will graduate this week with his M.Div. from Southern Seminary. 

I’m recounting my experience on the ordination council because I’m overwhelmed with gratefulness. As I listened to the young worship leader answer the questions with confident humility, evidence of his rigorous study at the seminary in tandem with the shepherding experience he had developed at the church became wonderfully obvious. The Apostle Peter’s charge was beautifully displayed during the council meeting: “…make every effort to supplement your faith with virtue, and virtue with knowledge, and knowledge with self-control, and self-control with steadfastness, and steadfastness with godliness, and godliness with brotherly affection, and brotherly affection with love. For if these qualities are yours and are increasing, they keep you from being ineffective or unfruitful in the knowledge of our Lord Jesus Christ.” (2 Peter 1:5-9)

I left the rural Indiana church that day encouraged by so many things, but three stand out in my mind: 

1. The pastor and the church take ordination very, very seriously.

2. Our student was incredibly well-prepared for the ordination interview. He worked hard during his time in Louisville, both in his studies at school and as a worship leader at the church. He grew theologically, musically, spiritually, and pastorally.  

3. The ordination council never lost sight of the vital role of an ordained man: being a pastor/shepherd.

While I was both thrilled and grateful to be a part of a council that explored so many vital areas of ministry, I was also reminded that pastoral ministry is primarily about shepherding and caring for people. In fact, people are the ministry. 

One of the pastors looked at my student and said, “I remember watching you work at putting all of your music and gear away at the end of the service the first few weeks of your ministry here. Do you remember what I said to you about three weeks after you started?” “Yes sir,” replied my student, “Quit messing with your gear and go shake hands with the people.” 

That’s a good word for all of us.

     


Dr. Crider is the Executive Director of the Institute for Biblical Worship and a professor of Church Music and Worship in the Department of Biblical Worship at the Southern Baptist Theological Seminary, Louisville, KY. He also serves as Worship Pastor at LaGrange Baptist Church in LaGrange, KY.

Fortress, Refuge, and the Word of God: Luther’s Vision of Psalm 46 (Part 2)

One of the most important thing that I tell my students in my Psalms, Hymns, and Spiritual Songs class is that a good hymn should make us thirsty for Scripture, and thirsty for God. “A Mighty Fortress” certainly does so. In the class we identify scripture passages on which a hymn is based and examine how they are used. As is evident from a comparison of this hymn text with Psalm 46, Luther chose not to paraphrase the whole of that Psalm. Instead, he focused on the flood scenes in the first three verses and the cosmic battle in the latter part of the Psalm, where Yahweh shows himself victorious over the rebellious nations of the earth. Luther’s original contribution in this Psalm paraphrase is a vivid, near-cinematic depiction of the battle in which the “flood of mortal ills” and a “world with devils filled” (both lines recalling the Psalm’s opening images of rising torrents) are at war with the armies of the living God. Particularly gripping is his portraiture of the “ancient foe” and the victorious Christ. The unifying refrain found at the middle (46:7) and end (46:11) of the Psalm, “The Lord of Hosts is with us, the God of Jacob is our refuge,” resonates throughout Luther’s hymn in spirit if not in exact wording.

A New Translation

Since German is my first language, and since I grew up hearing this hymn from my parents first in German, I wanted to attempt a fresh version that might clarify a few obscure spots in the English text. The venerable 1852 English translation still sung by most American Protestants is that by Frederick H. Hedge. Incidentally, his is hardly the only translation available; there are dozens in all. The version by Scottish essayist, social commentator, and historian Thomas Carlyle (1795-1881) has long been the accepted translation in England, according to the late leading hymn scholar Erik Routley, and still holds that place in many British hymnals.[1] My version appears in italics below.[2] My longer article with annotations and translation notes, “A Fresh Look at Martin Luther’s ‘A Mighty Fortress’” appears on the Southern Equip blog.

A massive fortress is our God,
A strong defense and weapon.
He alone helps in all the needs
That have us overtaken.
Our ancient, vicious foe
Aims to seek and destroy,
And armed with might and lies,
He wars and terrifies,
And none on earth can match him.

In our own pow’r we’d only fail,
We would be lost forever.
But fighting for us is the Man
Whom God Himself has chosen.
You ask who that might be? 
There is no God but He −
Christ Jesus is His name,
Captain of heaven’s hosts,
And He will hold the field.

And though this world were full of fiends
All trying to devour us,
We know we do not have to fear,
Our God will still empow’r us.
The ruler of this world, 
However much he roars,
Can do our souls no harm;
He is already judged,
One word of God condemns him.

That Word no powers of hell can touch,
It stands, though demons swarm us.
God with His Spirit surrounds His church,
With holy gifts He arms us.
Though men may take our lives,
goods, honor, children, wives,
Nothing will they have won,
His kingdom still will stand;
It must endure forever.

--translation E.R. Crookshank, 2017

[1] Erik Routley, Panorama of Christian Hymnody, expanded and edited by Paul A. Richardson (Chicago: GIA Publications, 2005), 288. For Carlyle’s full text see “A safe stronghold our God is still,” https://hymnary.org/text/a_safe_stronghold_our_god_is_still, accessed October 26, 2017, 3:20 p.m. This is the comprehensive, scholarly online resource for texts, tunes, and biographical and publication information.
[2] While not a perfect singing translation, I preserved the German line meter nearly throughout.


Dr. Esther Crookshank is a Professor of Church Music at the Southern Baptist Theological Seminary in Louisville, KY. She teaches in the areas of hymnology, musicology, applied ethnomusicology, and musical aesthetics.

Floods, Refuge, and the Voice of God: Luther's Vision of Psalm 46 (Part 1)

It seems we can think of little else right now. The motif of water, assuming a variety of roles, is one of the leading metaphors in Hebrew poetry. In many contexts water imagery is closely associated with chaos, according to Old Testament scholar William P. Brown in his exhaustive study of metaphor in the Psalms.[1]

Repeatedly, God enforces order, an extension of his righteous character and rule, on natural chaos; the “scenario of destruction paves the way for the establishment of a salutary order,” as Brown explains. God does so by His word, as He did at creation’s birth when the Spirit hovered over the formless waters. The waters, however, are not always inanimate or amorphous. In some Psalms their force is embodied in the image of the sea monster Leviathan, cast in the framework of a combat or Chaoskampf motif. In Psalm 74, Brown notes, “God achieves victory over watery chaos through the exercise of royal office”:

Yet God my King is from old,
Who works salvation in the earth’s midst.
You divided Sea (yam) by your strength;
You broke the heads of the dragons (tannînîm) of the waters.
You crushed the heads of Leviathan.”[2] (Psalm 74:12-14a)

YHWH, agent of all powers and forces, can sovereignly choose to cause tumult as well as to silence it, as when he ripped open the Red Sea to accomplish His deliverance of Israel.

It is the resounding word, the voice of the Lord that thunders through Psalm 29, Psalm 93, and others. Psalm 29, an important enthronement Psalm recalling Israel’s royal temple liturgy, incorporates the combat motif while also drawing on the genre of storm deity hymn found in ancient Mesopotamian literature. This Psalm pictures YHWH enthroned directly upon the waters. As Brown states: “Raging floods, rather than posing a threat to YHWH, become the foundation beneath His sovereign throne. . . . [Furthermore, he observes,] in contradistinction to Near Eastern lore, the convulsion of creation is not the prerequisite for royal rule but the result of it.”[3] YHWH, agent of all powers and forces, can sovereignly choose to cause tumult as well as to silence it, as when he ripped open the Red Sea to accomplish His deliverance of Israel. His voice thunders far above the loudest floods:

The floods have lifted up their voice; . . .
Greater than the voice of the many waters (mayyîm rabbîm),
More majestic ('addîr)[4] than the breakers of the sea,
[most] majestic on high is YHWH.
Your decrees are very firm;
Holiness befits your house,
YHWH forevermore. (Psalm 93:3-5)

When Floodwaters Rise

Floodwaters can signify[5] not only natural chaos but political turmoil, the riots of the peoples. God, a royal warrior, is victor in the cosmic battle,[6] . . . poised to subdue any force that would plunge creation into chaos,”[7] which often includes the Psalmists’ and Israel’s enemies. Enemies and “deep waters” are juxtaposed in striking parallelism in Psalm 69, where the Psalmist depicts himself as “drowning” in shame, with shame covering his face as waters cover the face of the deep (69:7), and begs to be rescued from both: “Let me not sink: let me be delivered from them that hate me, and out of the deep waters.” (Psalm 69:14b, KJV)[8]

In Psalm 124, a hymn of community thanksgiving, the Israelites thank YHWH for having driven back their enemies, which “would have swallowed us alive,” as well as the “raging waters” which “would have swept us away.” YHWH silences the fury of both seas and peoples, who become associated with chaos through the use of water imagery, Brown notes:

You silence the roaring of the seas,
The roaring of their waves,
The tumult of the peoples. (Psalm 65:7)[9]

Refuge in the Storm

Psalm 46, one of the great Zion psalms, “revels in water imagery of a cataclysmic scale,” as Brown describes it, “while conveying the calm assurance of God’s saving power amid national threat.”[10] This Psalm is divided into two scenes with Zion as its centerpiece, God’s city fed by God’s river, a refuge against chaos. The picture of flooding waters and roiling seas which permeates Psalm 46:1-3 stands in dramatic contrast to the calm, life-giving river whose streams “make glad the city of God.” (v. 4) As Brown points out, this is no ordinary river but a spiritual one, flowing from the very sanctuary of God. The river image recalls the crucial importance of a city’s water source as its lifeline in a time of attack or besiegement, as occurred in Hezekiah’s time. Brown here notes significantly that “within the city, water is an agent of joy; outside its walls, water . . . destroys the nations.”[11] Theologically, he continues, the river “connotes God’s solidarity;” as its streams flow through the city, His presence indwells her, which is why “‘she shall not be moved’ . . . . The river is a sign and seal of God’s holy habitation in Jerusalem’s midst.”[12]

In scene one of the Psalm, mountains totter and crash; in scene two, kingdoms fall and the earth melts. Brown sums up the stunning picture: “As cosmic chaos slides into political mayhem, . . . while both mountains and nations collapse into the churning sea, indeed as the entire earth dissolves, the city of God remains unmoved.”[13] Just as Psalm 29 ends with the voice of YHWH “outshouting” the voice of floods, notes Brown,[14] and Psalm 65 shows Him silencing the raging peoples, Psalm 46 “concludes with a cease-and-desist order against both the nations and the cosmos: ‘Settle down (harpû) and acknowledge me as God! Exalted am I among the nations, and in the earth!’ (v. 10). The command reflects a new reality, an equilibrium established by God’s dramatic intervention in which the weapons of war are silenced and chaos subsides.”[15] In each case it is the voice of YHWH, the Word, that is the prime mover which all powers obey.

How did Luther read Psalm 46 and its richly complex metaphors when he paraphrased it in “A mighty fortress,” destined to become the battle song of the Reformation and one of the Church’s great hymns of all time? Read Part 2 coming soon!

In the meantime, our ongoing prayers rise for the victims of storm and flood as well as for those doing backbreaking relief work and reconstruction. May their spirits be lifted by the stillness which YHWH’s voice can bring even in the wake of fierce devastation, the peace which He achieved in Christ when he calmed the sea of Galilee and when he has stilled past storms in our lives, and may all whose trust is placed in Him be sustained today by the strength and joy that His river of life provides for His holy Zion.

May their spirits be lifted by the stillness which YHWH’s voice can bring even in the wake of fierce devastation, the peace which He achieved in Christ when he calmed the sea of Galilee and when he has stilled past storms in our lives.

[1] William P. Brown, Seeing the Psalms: A Theology of Metaphor (Louisville and London: Westminster John Knox, 2002).
[2] Brown, Seeing the Psalms, 109. Translation from the Hebrew by Brown.
[3] Brown, Seeing the Psalms, 112.
[4] “The term indicates expansive glory, both divine (Psalm 67:5) and watery (Exodus 15:10).” Brown, Seeing the Psalms, 246, note 41.
[5] Or “target”, the technical term used in linguistic analysis of metaphor. Brown, Seeing the Psalms, 106.
[6] A motif throughout the Psalms and also in ancient Mesopotamian literature and Babylonian epics.
[7] Brown, Seeing the Psalms, 112. God pronounced His created order good, and promised never to create global chaos through flooding again.
[8] Brown, Seeing the Psalms, 114.
[9] Brown, Seeing the Psalms, 115.
[10] Brown, Seeing the Psalms, 115.
[11] Brown, Seeing the Psalms, 115.
[12] Brown, Seeing the Psalms, 117.
[13] Brown, Seeing the Psalms, 116.
[14] Brown, Seeing the Psalms, 112.
[15] Brown, Seeing the Psalms, 116-117.


Dr. Esther Crookshank is a Professor of Church Music at the Southern Baptist Theological Seminary in Louisville, KY. She teaches in the areas of hymnology, musicology, applied ethnomusicology, and musical aesthetics. Since 2009 she has also served as director of the Academy of Sacred Music, the seminary’s guest artist and lecture forum.

Seven Essential Characteristics of an Effective Worship Leader

I have the privilege of training worship leaders. This means that I have the task of preparing musicians to lead their congregations in doing something that they will continue to do in eternity. Done well this act should help teach people how to live in faith and one day die with hope. Leading a task that engages a holy God with such eternal implications should not be handled tritely. It takes a substantive person to plan, prepare, and lead what should be a substantive act. Here is what I believe a worship leader must demonstrate in order to be effective for this significant task:

  1. Musical talent. This is the only characteristic on the list that must be present at birth. Some people have a gift for music and others do not. For those that do, that talent must be developed and refined. This takes time and work, but the combination of these two demonstrates the presence of talent. Effective worship leaders practice and get better.
    Psalm 33:3 (ESV) – “Sing to him a new song; play skillfully…”

  2. Teachability. Regardless of how talented a worship leader is, teachability is always required. Good worship leaders are continually learning and seeking instruction. A worship leader who resists instruction will be a poor teacher himself. Effective worship leaders strive to be teachable.
    Proverbs 13:18 – “Poverty and disgrace come to him who ignores instruction, but whoever heeds reproof is honored.”

  3. Biblical Knowledge. This is a characteristic that everyone begins life with a total absence of. It is necessary to create a lifelong appetite for God’s word. Every week worship leaders point people to God while also representing the character and works of God in song and speech. Too many do so out of theological and biblical ignorance. Effective worship leaders develop a reservoir of Biblical truth within them so they can speak and lead intelligently.
    2 Timothy 3:16 – “All Scripture is breathed out by God and profitable for teaching, for reproof, for correction, and for training in righteousness, that the man of God may be competent, equipped for every good work.”

  4. Character. The hypocrisy of a duplicitous life on any platform will eventually be revealed. Standing on a platform to lead worship is essentially saying “Follow me while I follow Christ.” Perfection is unattainable for anyone, but sanctification is honest about sin and progressive in growth because it comes from following Christ intentionally. Unfortunately, talent has a way of taking musicians farther than their character can sustain them. Effective worship leaders grow in godliness.
    1 Samuel 16:17b – “For the Lord sees not as man sees: man looks on the outward appearance, but the Lord looks on the heart.”

  5. Passion. Worship should have an appropriate and authentic emotional component. I am not referring to pep rally emotionalism, but neither should there be the appearance of apathy or disinterest. Worship should reflect deep-seated joy, true brokenness over sin, and authentic (even euphoric) gratefulness for the Savior. Effective worship leaders cultivate the capacity to be appropriately affected emotionally because worship is an unparalleled journey of enjoying ultimate fulfillment at Christ’s expense.
    Psalm 84:2b – “My heart and flesh sing for joy to the living God.”

  6. Humility. This may be the most elusive characteristic on the list. Performing music can tend to make musicians arrogant. A musical skill can become a motive for boasting in an otherwise reserved individual. The types of thoughts that can come to mind while leading worship can be startling if evaluated honestly. Effective worship leaders pursue God’s glory over their own glory.
    James 4:6 – “God opposes the proud but gives grace to the humble.”

  7. Love for the Church. This can often be the most forgotten item on the list. If allowed, love for music can eclipse love for the people. The true allegiance of our affections will be on display in numerous decisions that we make every week. Effective worship leaders examine their motives and advance strategies that make music a servant, not a master.
    Romans 12:10 – “Love one another with brotherly affection. Outdo one another in showing honor.”

Being a worship leader is a journey. Proper orientation in these things reflects one’s capability and fitness for being used in a role that none of us truly deserves to hold. We serve at God’s pleasure. Enter humbly, grow intentionally!


Dr. Scott Connell is Assistant Professor of Music and Worship Leadership; Program Coordinator, Worship and Music Studies at Boyce College in Louisville, KY.

Confessions of a Fallen Worship Pastor

So, whoever thinks he stands must be careful not to fall (1 Corinthians 10:12, HCSB).

Three times each semester the Institute for Biblical Worship at Southern Seminary hosts a special speaker and lunch for the worship majors enrolled in the Boyce College and Seminary music and worship programs. In the past we've had a wide variety of guests including Matt Boswell, Keith Getty and Mike Harland. We try to expose our students to influential voices in the area of worship leadership and ministry beyond the classroom. You can hear recordings of past presentations here.

In his chapel message at Southern Seminary on February 21, 2017, Dr. Denny Burke spoke on 2 Timothy 2:22, where Paul reminded Timothy to “flee youthful passions.” It is not coincidental that Dr. Burke is sensing the same concern for students throughout the entire seminary that we have for our worship majors. Please listen to his message here.

Last week we had a speaker named Brandon Watkins. Brandon drives a Schwan's food truck. He gets up every morning at 2:30 am and delivers frozen food to the customers on his route in this region of Kentucky. He didn't always work for Schwan's. Several years ago he was a student at Southern in what was then the School of Church Music. Throughout his high school and college years, Brandon sang for a traveling evangelist in a ministry that took him all over the world. When Brandon speaks you can tell he can sing... he has that natural, resonant quality to his vocal tone you often hear from someone on a stage in Nashville.

Until about seven years ago, Brandon was a full-time worship pastor in a large, growing church in the south. He was married and had two little girls. But he lost them and everything else in life because of an addiction. While he was in high school he, like so many other young men, began looking at pornography. As a Christian and a traveling musician in an evangelistic ministry, he convinced himself that he could "manage" the sin. After all, good Christians (especially traveling evangelists) aren't supposed to struggle with bad things like porn, and he didn't want to admit he had a problem. Brandon said this to our students: "When sin isn't exposed to the light, it leads to a stronghold, and when a stronghold isn't dealt with, it leads to an addiction."

Brandon's story is heartbreaking. At the height of his deception, he still thought he could "manage" the double life of being a worship pastor and a daily customer at a strip club. He justified his actions by saying that God didn’t answer his prayers. Here was his prayer: “God, if You want me to quit going to the strip club, then take my voice away from me.” He told our students it was incredible the things he would come up with to justify his double life. His singing voice stayed strong, the ministry at his church flourished, and he kept right on living in the darkness of what he thought was a secret sin.

Finally, the stress and burden of lies and deceit became too much and he confessed to his wife, his pastor, and his church what he had been hiding. For the next six months, he lived the life of the prodigal son. There was no more hiding what he had become, and he stepped completely out of the light and into darkness. Five months later, on his 31st birthday, he was alone on the back porch of his empty house. The water and heat had been turned off, and other than a mattress and a table, there was not any furniture in the empty rooms of the home he once shared with his family. As he sat on his porch and looked down at the half-empty bottle of Jack Daniels next to him, reality finally hit him – he had hit bottom.

Brandon Watkins' testimony opened the eyes and ears of several of our students last week. He told them his pride kept him from asking for help and his arrogance duped him into thinking at each stage of his growing addiction that he could "manage" his sin and deceive everyone around him. Through his tears, he looked at our students and said, "Each one of you is living in one of three categories right now: (1) You are actively and intentionally protecting yourself from a fall because you know you are vulnerable. (2) You are in the middle of a fall. Or, (3) you are arrogantly thinking you will never fall—and if that's the case—you'll be calling me within five years and asking for my help because you've lost everything."

I once heard a pastor say that among men who are no longer in ministry because of moral failure, the fall was never a moral blowout, but a slow leak. Those men let down their guard on the small things, like a second look at the tabloid in the grocery store check-out line, or a daydream that fueled lustful thoughts. For Brandon, and all of us, this is a battle that never ends. The measures of protection match the severity of the sin. Brandon and his new wife, Kala, do not have internet at their house.

Why should we take up blog space on the Institute for Biblical Worship website with a topic like this? Because so many worship leaders and pastors are struggling with the devastating sin of pornography. During the Q&A time with Brandon, one of the students asked, "Why aren't we talking about this more and being proactive in battling against it?” Brandon said that when he was younger he didn't want to share his battle because a worship leader wasn't supposed to be dealing with a sin like porn.

As he ended his testimony, Brandon introduced his mentor, Ray Carroll, who has a book and a ministry called Fallen Pastor (www.fallenpastor.com).  In the last few years since he began this ministry, Ray has spoken with over 500 pastors who have fallen. Over and over throughout Brandon and Ray’s talk with our students, they encouraged the students to seek help, develop true accountability, and shed light on the sin.

So, whoever thinks he stands must be careful not to fall. No temptation has overtaken you except what is common to humanity. God is faithful, and He will not allow you to be tempted beyond what you are able, but with the temptation He will also provide a way of escape so that you are able to bear it (1 Corinthians 10:12-13).

Taste and See: The Case of Nadab and Abihu

Taste and see that the LORD is good. How happy is the man who takes refuge in Him! Psalm 34:8 HCSB

On January 1 of this year my Bible reading plan began with Genesis 1. The consistent pattern is to read three or four chapters a day and if all goes well and I stick with the schedule, by December 31 I should be reading the words of John the Revelator, “Amen, Come, Lord Jesus!”

On many days, familiar characters in the readings such as Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, and Joseph feel like old friends. Although the descriptions of those characters don’t change from year to year, my perceptions of them and their strengths and weaknesses do. As their stories unfold in the pages, it seems as if those characters know my story too. I chuckled out loud as I read the account of Israel’s sons when they left Egypt after Joseph revealed himself. I can see Joseph calling out to them from an Egyptian palace balcony, “...and don’t argue on the way home!” (Gen 45:24). Small phrases like those give us glimpses into the personalities of characters like Joseph and his brothers— glimpses that we can pick up on the next time we encounter them.

This past week a particular phrase in Exodus 24 arrested my attention so completely it seemed as if I was there watching the scene unfold. God said to Moses, “Go up to the LORD, you and Aaron, Nadab, and Abihu, and seventy of Israel’s elders, and bow in worship at a distance.” What followed was a covenant ceremony, and in Exodus 24:9 Moses recorded these words: “Then Moses went up with Aaron, Nadab, and Abihu, and seventy of Israel’s elders, and they saw the God of Israel. Beneath His feet was something like a pavement made of sapphire stone, as clear as the sky itself. God did not harm the Israelite nobles; they saw Him, and they ate and drank.”

Those men saw God. We don’t know what exactly that entailed, but at the very least, they caught a glimpse of Him. The verse also indicates that “they ate and drank.” They sealed the covenant ceremony with a meal to remember the significance of those moments with the God of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob. Then, less than fifty days after seeing God, Aaron gave in to the complaints of the Israelites and made the people an idol in the shape of a cow. Later, Nadab and Abihu became eternal poster boys reminding generations that God is serious about how He is worshiped (Lev 10:1).

All too frequently my first reaction to Old Testament characters like Aaron and Nadab and Abihu is “How in the world could they have done something so stupid, especially after they had seen God and eaten a covenant meal like that?” But as time passes and I get older, I’m less critical of the Aarons and Nadabs and Abihus in the pages of Scripture because I see more of my own sin in their stories. Or perhaps, their stories somehow point to and reveal the sin in my story. How many times have I been a part of a corporate worship gathering and sensed my affections for God elevated to new heights because of God’s self-revelation through Christ and Scripture [1], but within hours of that gathering I succumb to satisfying my soul with an idol like food or entertainment? How many times has God clearly revealed something to me in His Word and within a few weeks the once-clear revelation is lost in a foggy mist of my own desires and disobedience?

What Exodus 24:9 reminded me of this past week is that I need to be ever-vigilant to realize how easily and quickly my heart can move from awed obedience to selfish sin. Aaron and his sons seemed to let down after they worshiped. Perhaps they dropped their guard thinking that somehow the phenomenal experience of covenant worship rendered them immune from the sin of idolatry and disobedience. Although it was years later that David wrote, “taste and see that the LORD is good” in Psalm 34, Aaron, Nadab and Abihu stand as powerful witnesses of what can happen when the latter half of that verse is neglected... they simply did not continue to “take refuge in Him."

After nearly three decades of leading worship, I’m finally starting to realize that I’m most vulnerable to sin and selfishness after I’ve had times of significantly meaningful worship. I let down. I think I deserve a break and that somehow I’m entitled to a little self-indulgence. And here is something else I’m becoming more aware of: the evil one is more than willing to assist my own selfish slant toward self- indulgence. As the years pass, the stories of Aaron and his sons cause me to scoff less at their stupidity and cause me to be more cognizant of my own. Peter says it incredibly well: “Be serious! Be alert! Your adversary the Devil is prowling around like a roaring lion, looking for anyone he can devour. Resist him and be firm in the faith, knowing that the same sufferings are being experienced by your fellow believers all over the world” (1 Pet 5:8-11).

So the next time we have the urge to roll our eyes in disgust at folks like Nadab and Abihu, maybe we need to remember that we should run to “take refuge in Him” after we have “tasted and seen.”

[1]. This is a paraphrase from John Stott, The Cross of Christ (Downers Grove: InterVarsity Press, 1986), 43.


Dr. Crider is the Executive Director of the Institute for Biblical Worship and a professor of Church Music and Worship in the Department of Biblical Worship at the Southern Baptist Theological Seminary, Louisville, KY. He also serves as Worship Pastor at LaGrange Baptist Church in LaGrange, KY.